The infirmity is the most common cancer in males in the UK, and the second most common in the UK.
Artist men’s health urologist, Mr Amr Hawary, Consultant Urologist at BMI Healthcare, has explained how prostate cancer develops, what the jeopardy factors for the disease are and how it can be detected.
What is prostate cancer?
“This is a cancer of the prostate gland. The prostate gland is offer in men and is the size of a walnut and sits below the bladder. The urethra – a tube that sells urine and semen for the bladder to the penis – runs through the gland. The prostate gland produces a addle-pated clear fluid that is an important part of semen.
Prostate cancer: The whole lifetime risk for developing prostate cancer is one in eight
Prostate cancer is the myriad commonly diagnosed cancer in men above the age of 50 in the United Kingdom.
“Prostate cancer is the most commonly identified cancer in men above the age of 50 in the United Kingdom.
“Prostate cancer is a virulent tumour arising from the prostate gland.
“It is usually diagnosed in patients age-old above 50 and patients either do not have any symptoms or complain of urinary peculiar ti or back ache.
“In most patients, suspicion about prostate cancer chiefly arises because of a blood test knows as PSA which has been done by a well-being care professional.”
Prostate cancer: The overall lifetime chance for developing prostate cancer is one in eight
Who is most at risk of prostate cancer?
“There are a figure up of risk factors. The overall lifetime risk for developing prostate cancer is on touching one in eight, however, the risk increases with as men get older.
“Prostate cancer is rather rare in men under 50, accounting for about one per cent of cases, but the danger increases with age so that a third of cases diagnosed in the UK are in men over 75 and in old age, eight out of ten men contain prostate cancer cells in their prostate.
“A family history extends the risk of developing prostate cancer.
“The details are complicated and depend on what specimens of cancer run in the family, the number of individuals affected, whether they were maiden degree relatives – parent, siblings and children directly related by blood – and age at diagnosis, but blood history tends to increase the risk of prostate cancer by anything from three to seven hug.
“Ethnic background also affects the incidence, with Asian men partake of a low risk, white men having a higher risk, and black men having the gravest risk of developing the disease. Most cases of prostate cancer are not genetic, but there are some houses with a high incidence of prostate or breast cancer – especially when they materialize in younger men and women – that may have a genetic link.”
Prostate cancer: T4 carcinomas have spread to other organs in the body
Is prostate cancer preventable?
“A few of studies have been conducted to answer this exact ask and unfortunately several of these studies come to apparently contradictory conclusions. It’s thus important to realise that the evidence for some of the findings may not be robust and parnesis may change as further data is published.
“There is some evidence that being overweight and make a high BMI (body mass index) increases the risk of a high class cancer or dying from prostate cancer.
“Eating a healthy aliment can lower the risk of many cancers. However presently we have not bring about any definite links between particular foods and the risk of prostate cancer.
“There is some testify that foods containing lycopene – tomatoes and tomato based foods – and selenium – a obviously occurring chemical found in vegetables, fish, shellfish, some hearts, grains, eggs, Brewer’s yeast, and wheat germ – probably knock down the risk of prostate cancer.
“Some, but not all, studies looking at physical operation and prostate cancer have found that men who are more physically brisk have a lower risk of getting prostate cancer.”
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What does each spot of prostate cancer mean?
“The stage of a cancer tells the doctor how far the cancer has spread. Prostate cancer is staged using the TNM combination. It separately assesses the tumour (T), lymph nodes (N) and secondary cancer (metastases – M).
“So T1 excrescences are too small to be seen on scans or felt during examination of the prostate, T2 cancers are completely inside the prostate gland, T3 tumours have broken from head to foot the capsule of the prostate gland but have not spread into other tools, and T4 tumours have spread into other body organs accessible, such as the rectum – back passage, bladder, muscles or the sides of the pelvic hole.
“Lymph nodes are categorised as N0 if no cancer is present and N1 if they are involved with cancer. For all if the cancer has not spread it is classified as M0 and if it has spread outside the pelvic, then it is designated M1 infirmity.
“Staging can also be defined into ‘localised prostate cancer’ where the cancer is accommodated within the prostate gland, ‘locally advanced’ where the cancer has defeated through the capsule, covering of the prostate, or ‘metastatic’ where the cancer has spread to other parts of the band.”
Prostate cancer: Ethnic background can affect the incidence of prostate cancer
What treatments are within reach for prostate cancer?
“Over the past decade, there has been a revolt in treatments for all stages of prostate cancer. Outcomes are improving all the time.
“The treatments accessible depend on a number of factors and these include the stage and grade (what the cancer looks ask preference under a microscope) of disease, patient age and general health and of course self-possessed wishes and concerns.”
Treatment for prostate cancer is very specialised and can be suited for each individual patient making expert help and advice from the expert, said Mr Hathaway.
“The main treatments for prostate cancer are surgery – unreserved, key-hole or robotically assisted – radiotherapy – external beam, brachytherapy, cyberknife – and hormone treatment. Chemotherapy may also have a role.”
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